Cyberbullying and Indirect Bullying: Are They the Same Behaviors

This session is from the NASP 2021 Annual Convention

  • PMD: 6
  • Skill Level: Advanced
  • Session 2: Promoting Social and Emotional Development

Learner Objectives

This session will help participants…

  1. understand the distinction between these behaviors as established through structural equation modeling.
  2. identify the empirically defined set of behaviors associated with cyberbullying.
  3. identify the empirically defined set of behaviors associated with relational aggression (indirect bullying).


This study was conducted to investigate whether cyberbullying is an extension of indirect bullying through technology in late adolescents. Through factor analysis, a two-component model was extracted and delineated as cyberbullying behaviors and indirect bullying behaviors. The model was tested using CFA methodology and was found to be a good fit for the data, thus providing support for cyberbullying and indirect bullying as independent constructs. Implications for practice are provided.



Laura M. Crothers, Duquesne University
Latitia S. Lattanzio-Paros, Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Ara J. Schmitt, Duquesne University
Sybil Kolbert, Duquesne University


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