Utilizing a Three-Tiered Target Hardening Model to Promote School Safety

This session is from the NASP 2021 Annual Convention

  • PMD: 5,6
  • Skill Level: Introduction
  • Session 1: Promoting Safe and Positive Schools

Learner Objectives

This session will help participants…

  1. gain access to school safety web-based resources and assessment measures related to target hardening practices implemented in schools across the United States.
  2. understand target hardening in the context of school safety using a three-tiered theoretical model.
  3. learn about best practices related to physical, procedural, and psychological hardening measures in order to consider which strategies may be most useful in their school.


Due to an increased concern related to school violence, target hardening practices have increasingly been employed across schools to promote safety, with most emphasis placed on physical security measures. A three-tiered theoretical model incorporating physical hardening, procedural hardening, and psychological hardening practices is introduced to support a balanced school safety approach. Best practices and recommendations related to each hardening strategy are discussed. Web-based resources are also provided with information about national initiatives and assessment measures.



Sydney R. Nelson, Michigan State University
John S. Carlson, Michigan State University


HaeDong Kim


Letter to Supervisor

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