Utilizing a Three-Tiered Target Hardening Model to Promote School Safety (PO008)

  • PMD: 5,6
  • Skill Level: Introduction
  • Session 1: Promoting Safe and Positive Schools
  • Live Chat:
    Tuesday, February 23, 2021
    11:30 AM–12:15 PM
    (Posters available on demand at any time during the convention week and for sixty days thereafter.)

Learner Objectives

This session will help participants…

  1. gain access to school safety web-based resources and assessment measures related to target hardening practices implemented in schools across the United States.
  2. understand target hardening in the context of school safety using a three-tiered theoretical model.
  3. learn about best practices related to physical, procedural, and psychological hardening measures in order to consider which strategies may be most useful in their school.


Due to an increased concern related to school violence, target hardening practices have increasingly been employed across schools to promote safety, with most emphasis placed on physical security measures. A three-tiered theoretical model incorporating physical hardening, procedural hardening, and psychological hardening practices is introduced to support a balanced school safety approach. Best practices and recommendations related to each hardening strategy are discussed. Web-based resources are also provided with information about national initiatives and assessment measures.



Sydney R. Nelson, Michigan State University
John S. Carlson, Michigan State University


HaeDong Kim

Letter to Supervisor

Looking for a concise way to pitch the convention to your employer? This letter and the corresponding talking points are here to help!

Preliminary Brochure

Share our NASP 2021 preliminary brochure with your supervisor along with the above letter.