Trending: How Have Group Contingencies Changed Over Time

This session is from the NASP 2021 Annual Convention

  • PMD: 4,6
  • Skill Level: Intermediate
  • Session 2: Promoting Social and Emotional Development

Learner Objectives

This session will help participants…

  1. describe group contingency intervention characteristics in the literature.
  2. analyze the trends of group contingencies in the literature from 1972 until 2019.
  3. apply findings from the current systematic review to future directions of research and implementation for group contingencies.


Group contingencies are effective in reducing disruptive behavior and reinforcing appropriate behavior (Gresham & Gresham, 1982). These interventions are associated with positive short-term and long-term outcomes for students. This study systematically reviews how group contingencies in the literature have evolved over time, regarding various intervention characteristics such as criterion to reinforcement, type of reinforcement, feedback, and rules and expectations, among others. A discussion on the implications of these changes and future directions will occur.



Talia E. Shuman, University of South Florida
Faith Reynolds, University of South Florida
Christley McGirt, University of South Florida
Jordyn L. Martin, University of South Florida


Evan H. Dart, Alexis C. Elvy


Letter to Supervisor

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